The electrophoric machine was developed in 1865 by the German experimental physicist August Töpler. In 1865, another German physicist Wilhelm Holtz invented his machine. Holtz’s machine, in comparison with Töpler’s machine, made to obtain a large potential difference and could be used as a source of direct electric current. At the same time, it had a simpler design. Between 1880 and 1883, it was perfected by the English inventor James Wimshurst. The electrophoretic machines currently used for demonstrations are modifications of the Wimshurst machine.